An Ounce Of Prevention Is Worth A Pound Of Cure!

The Herb Hawthorn

Background

  • Hawthorn is a flowering shrub or tree of the rose family. It is native to Europe and grows in temperate regions throughout the world.
  • Historically, hawthorn has been used for heart disease as well as for digestive and kidney problems. It has also been used for anxiety.
  • Extracts from the hawthorn leaf, flower, or berry may be sold as capsules, tablets, or liquids.

How Much Do We Know?

  • Hawthorn has been studied for heart failure in people. Heart failure is a condition in which the heart can’t pump as much blood as it should.
  • Not much is known about hawthorn for any other health conditions as there is little or no evidence.

What Have We Learned?

  • Although some older, short-term studies suggested that hawthorn may have benefits in patients with heart failure, two longer term studies completed in 2008 and 2009—including a 2-year trial involving almost 2,700 people in 13 European countries—did not confirm these benefits. In these studies, unlike some of the older ones, patients were given hawthorn in addition to the recommended conventional treatments for heart failure.

What Do We Know About Safety?

  • In most studies of hawthorn for heart failure, no serious safety problems have been reported. However, in one study, patients taking hawthorn were more likely than those taking a placebo (an inactive substance) to have their heart failure get worse soon after the study started. The reason for this is not clear, but one possibility is that hawthorn might have interacted with drugs the patients were taking.
  • Side effects of hawthorn can include dizziness, nausea, and digestive symptoms.
  • Hawthorn may interact in harmful ways with drugs, including some heart medications. If you’re taking medication and you’re considering using hawthorn, consult your health care provider.

Keep in Mind

  • Tell all your health care providers about any complementary or integrative health approaches you use. Give them a full picture of what you do to manage your health. This will help ensure coordinated and safe care.

Key References

  • Guo R, Pittler MH, Ernst E. Hawthorn extract for treating chronic heart failure. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 2008;(1):CD005312 [edited 2009]. Accessed at http://www.thecochranelibrary.com(link is external) on April 17, 2015.
  • Hawthorn. In: Blumenthal M, Goldberg A, Brinckmann J, eds. Herbal Medicine: Expanded Commission E Monographs. Newton, MA: Integrative Medicine Communications; 2000:182-192.
  • Hawthorn. Natural Medicines Web site. Accessed at naturalmedicines.therapeuticresearch.com on April 17, 2015. [Database subscription].
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Cod Liver Oil

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What is it?

Cod liver oil can be obtained from eating fresh cod liver or by taking supplements.

Cod liver oil is used for high cholesterol, high triglycerides, kidney disease in people with diabetes, high blood pressure, heart disease, osteoarthritis, depression, an autoimmune disease called systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), glaucoma, and middle ear infections (otitis media).

Some people put cod liver oil on their skin to speed wound healing.

When taken in appropriate doses by mouth, cod liver oil seems to help lower high triglycerides (a type of blood fat), lower high blood pressure, and treat some symptoms of kidney disease related to diabetes. It doesn’t seem to lower high cholesterol or reduce arthritis pain. Other uses are still under investigation.

How effective is it?

Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database rates effectiveness based on scientific evidence according to the following scale: Effective, Likely Effective, Possibly Effective, Possibly Ineffective, Likely Ineffective, Ineffective, and Insufficient Evidence to Rate.

The effectiveness ratings for COD LIVER OIL are as follows:

Likely effective for…

  • Lowering blood fats called triglycerides. Taking cod liver oil by mouth can reduce triglyceride levels by 20% to 50% in people with high triglyceride levels.

Possibly effective for…

  • High blood pressure. Taking cod liver oil by mouth seems to lower blood pressure (both numbers) a small, but important, amount in people with mild high blood pressure.
  • Kidney disease in people with type 2 diabetes. Taking cod liver oil seems to reduce protein in the urine, a marker for kidney disease severity.

Possibly ineffective for…

  • Osteoarthritis.
  • Cholesterol disease that runs in families (familial hypercholesterolemia).

Insufficient evidence to rate effectiveness for…

  • Depression. There is some evidence that people who take cod liver oil have fewer symptoms of depression than other people.
  • Irregular heartbeat in people with heart disease. There is some early evidence that cod liver oil might help to prevent certain types of irregular heartbeat.
  • Ear infections in young children. Preliminary research suggests that taking cod liver oil along with a children’s multivitamin-mineral product containing selenium might prevent or decrease the number of ear infections in young children.
  • Heart disease.
  • Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE).
  • Wound healing.
  • Glaucoma.
  • Other conditions.

More evidence is needed to rate cod liver oil for these uses.

How does it work?

Cod liver oil contains certain “fatty acids” that prevent the blood from clotting easily. These fatty acids also reduce pain and swelling.

Are there safety concerns?

Cod liver oil is LIKELY SAFE for most people. It can cause side effects including belching, bad breath, heartburn, and nosebleeds. Taking cod liver oil with meals can often decrease these side effects.

High doses are POSSIBLY UNSAFE. They might keep blood from clotting and can increase the chance of bleeding. Vitamin A and vitamin D levels might also become too high with high doses of cod liver oil. High doses might also cause nausea and loose stools.

The safety of cod liver oil when used on the skin is unknown.

Special precautions & warnings:

Pregnancy and breast-feeding: Not enough is known about the use of cod liver oil during pregnancy and breast-feeding. Stay on the safe side and avoid use.

High blood pressure: Cod liver oil can lower blood pressure and might cause blood pressure to go too low if used along with medications for high blood pressure. Be careful when using cod liver oil if you are taking high blood pressure drugs.

Are there interactions with medications?

Moderate
Be cautious with this combination.
Medications for high blood pressure (Antihypertensive drugs)
Cod liver oil seems to decrease blood pressure. Taking cod liver oil along with medications for high blood pressure might cause your blood pressure to go too low.

Some medications for high blood pressure include captopril (Capoten), enalapril (Vasotec), losartan (Cozaar), valsartan (Diovan), diltiazem (Cardizem), amlodipine (Norvasc), hydrochlorothiazide (HydroDIURIL), furosemide (Lasix), and many others.

Medications that slow blood clotting (Anticoagulant / Antiplatelet drugs)
Cod liver oil might slow blood clotting. Taking cod liver oil along with medications that also slow clotting might increase the chances of bruising and bleeding.

Some medications that slow blood clotting include aspirin, clopidogrel (Plavix), diclofenac (Voltaren, Cataflam, others), dipyridamole (Persantine), ibuprofen (Advil, Motrin, others), naproxen (Anaprox, Naprosyn, others), dalteparin (Fragmin), enoxaparin (Lovenox), heparin, ticlopidine (Ticlid), warfarin (Coumadin), and others.

Are there interactions with herbs and supplements?

Herbs and supplements that might slow blood clotting
Cod liver oil might slow blood clotting. Using cod liver oil with herbs and supplements that also slow blood clotting might increase the chance of bruising and bleeding in some people. These herbs include angelica, borage seed oil, clove, danshen, garlic, ginger, ginkgo, red clover, turmeric, willow, and others.

Are there interactions with foods?

There are no known interactions with foods.

What dose is used?

The following doses have been studied in scientific research:

BY MOUTH:

  • For lowering triglycerides: 20 mL of cod liver oil per day.
  • For high cholesterol: 30 mL of cod liver oil per day.
  • For lowering blood pressure: 20 mL of cod liver oil per day.
 

Methodology

To learn more about how this article was written, please see the Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database methodology.

References

  1. Raeder MB, Steen VM, Vollset SE, Bjelland I. Associations between cod liver oil use and symptoms of depression: The Hordaland Health Study. J Affect Disord 2007;101:245-9. View abstract.
  2. Farmer A, Montori V, Dinneen S, Clar C. Fish oil in people with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2001;3:CD003205. View abstract.
  3. Linday LA, Dolitsky JN, Shindledecker RD, Pippenger CE. Lemon-flavored cod liver oil and multivitamin-mineral supplement for the secondary prevention of otitis media in young children: pilot research. Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol 2002:111:642-52.. View abstract.

Coconut water

What is it?

Coconut water is the clear liquid found inside immature coconuts. As the coconut matures, the water is replaced by coconut meat.

Coconut water is sometimes referred to as green coconut water because the immature coconuts are green in color.

Coconut water is different than coconut milk. Coconut milk is produced from an emulsion of the grated meat of a mature coconut.

Coconut water is commonly used as a beverage and as a solution for treating dehydration related to diarrhea or exercise. It is also tried for high blood pressure.

How effective is it?

Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database rates effectiveness based on scientific evidence according to the following scale: Effective, Likely Effective, Possibly Effective, Possibly Ineffective, Likely Ineffective, Ineffective, and Insufficient Evidence to Rate.

The effectiveness ratings for COCONUT WATER are as follows:

Insufficient evidence to rate effectiveness for…

  • Diarrhea-related dehydration. Some research shows that consuming coconut water can help prevent dehydration in children with mild diarrhea. But there is no reliable evidence that it is any more effective than other beverages for this use.
  • Exercise-related dehydration. Some athletes use coconut water to replace fluids after exercise. Coconut water seems to help rehydrate after exercise, but it does not appear to be more effective than sports drinks or plain water.
  • High blood pressure. Some research suggests that drinking coconut water might lower blood pressure in people with high blood pressure.
  • Other conditions.

More evidence is needed to rate the effectiveness of coconut water for these uses.

How does it work?

Coconut water is rich in carbohydrates and electrolytes such as potassium, sodium, and magnesium. Because of this electrolyte composition, there is a lot of interest in using coconut water to treat and prevent dehydration. But some experts suggest that the electrolyte composition in coconut water is not adequate to be used as a rehydration solution.

Are there safety concerns?

Coconut water is LIKELY SAFE for most adults when consumed as a drink. There are no known serious side effects.

Coconut water is POSSIBLY SAFE for children.

Special precautions & warnings:

Pregnancy and breast-feeding: Not enough is known about the use of coconut water during pregnancy and breast-feeding. Stay on the safe side and avoid use.

High blood pressure: Coconut water might lower blood pressure. It can increase the effects of medications used to lower blood pressure. Discuss your use of coconut water with your healthcare provider if you have blood pressure problems.

Surgery: Coconut water might interfere with blood pressure control during and after surgery. Stop using coconut water at least two weeks before a scheduled surgery.

Are there interactions with medications?

Moderate
Be cautious with this combination.
Medications for high blood pressure (Antihypertensive drugs)
Coconut water might decrease blood pressure. Taking coconut water along with medications for high blood pressure might cause your blood pressure to go too low.

Some medications for high blood pressure include captopril (Capoten), enalapril (Vasotec), losartan (Cozaar), valsartan (Diovan), diltiazem (Cardizem), amlodipine (Norvasc), hydrochlorothiazide (HydroDiuril), furosemide (Lasix), and many others.

Are there interactions with herbs and supplements?

Herbs and supplements that might lower blood pressure
Coconut water might lower blood pressure. Using it along with other herbs and supplements that lower blood pressure might lower blood pressure too much. Some of these products include danshen, epimedium, ginger, Panax ginseng, turmeric, valerian, and others.

Are there interactions with foods?

There are no known interactions with foods.

Methodology

To learn more about how this article was written, please see the Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database methodology.

References

  1. Alleyne T, Roache S, Thomas C, Shirley A. The control of hypertension by use of coconut water and mauby: two tropical food drinks. West Indian Med J 2005;54:3-8. View abstract.
  2. Ismail I, Singh R, Sirisinghe RG. Rehydration with sodium-enriched coconut water after exercise-induced dehydration. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health 2007;38:769-85. View abstract.
  3. Saat M, Singh R, Sirisinghe RG, Nawawi M. Rehydration after exercise with fresh young coconut water, carbohydrate-electrolyte beverage and plain water. J Physiol Anthropol Appl Human Sci. 2002;21:93-104. View abstract.

 

 

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Background

  • Green, black, and oolong teas all come from the same plant, Camellia sinensis, but are prepared using different methods. To produce green tea, fresh leaves from the plant are lightly steamed.
  • Tea has been used for medicinal purposes in China and Japan for thousands of years.
  • Current uses of green tea as a beverage or dietary supplement include improving mental alertness, relieving digestive symptoms and headaches, and promoting weight loss. Green tea and its extracts, such as one of its components, EGCG, have been studied for their possible protective effects against heart disease and cancer.
  • Green tea is consumed as a beverage. It is also sold in liquid extracts, capsules, and tablets and is sometimes used in topical products (intended to be applied to the skin).

How Much Do We Know?

  • Although many studies have been done on green tea and its extracts, definite conclusions cannot yet be reached on whether green tea is helpful for most of the purposes for which it is used.

What Have We Learned?

  • There’s evidence that green tea enhances mental alertness, as would be expected because of its caffeine content.
  • The U.S. Food and Drug Administration has approved a specific green tea extract ointment as a prescription drug for treating genital warts.
  • Studies of green tea and cancer in people have had inconsistent results. The National Cancer Institute does not recommend for or against using green tea to reduce the risk of any type of cancer.
  • Very few long-term studies have investigated the effects of tea on heart disease risk. However, the limited evidence currently available suggests that both green and black tea might have beneficial effects on some heart disease risk factors, including blood pressure and cholesterol.
  • Green tea extracts haven’t been shown to produce a meaningful weight loss in overweight or obese adults. They also haven’t been shown to help people maintain a weight loss.
  • The National Center for Complementary and Integrative Health (NCCIH) is funding research on green tea and its extracts, including studies of the effects of high doses of tea components on the liver, whether substances in green tea can be helpful for iron overload disease, and the safety of a component of green tea in people who are HIV-positive.

What Do We Know About Safety?

  • Green tea, when consumed as a beverage, is believed to be safe when used in moderate amounts.
  • Liver problems have been reported in a small number of people who took concentrated green tea extracts. Although the evidence that the green tea products caused the liver problems is not conclusive, experts suggest that concentrated green tea extracts be taken with food and that people discontinue use and consult a health care provider if they have a liver disorder or develop symptoms of liver trouble, such as abdominal pain, dark urine, or jaundice.
  • Except for decaffeinated green tea products, green tea and green tea extracts contain substantial amounts of caffeine. Too much caffeine can make people feel jittery and shaky; interfere with sleep; and cause headaches.
  • Green tea has been shown to reduce blood levels (and therefore the effectiveness) of the drug nadolol, a beta-blocker used for high blood pressure and heart problems. It may also interact with other medicines.

Keep in Mind

  • Tell all your health care providers about any complementary or integrative health approaches you use. Give them a full picture of what you do to manage your health. This will help ensure coordinated and safe care.

What is Green Coffee?

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What is it?

“Green coffee” beans are coffee seeds (beans) of Coffea fruits that have not yet been roasted. The roasting process of coffee beans reduces amounts of the chemical chlorogenic acid. Therefore, green coffee beans have a higher level of chlorogenic acid compared to regular, roasted coffee beans. Chlorogenic acid in green coffee is thought to have health benefits.

Green coffee became popular for weight loss after it was mentioned on the Dr. Oz show in 2012. The Dr. Oz show referred to it as “The green coffee bean that burns fat fast” and claims that no exercise or diet is needed.

People take green coffee by mouth for obesity, diabetes, high blood pressure, Alzheimer’s disease, and bacterial infections.

How effective is it?

Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database rates effectiveness based on scientific evidence according to the following scale: Effective, Likely Effective, Possibly Effective, Possibly Ineffective, Likely Ineffective, Ineffective, and Insufficient Evidence to Rate.

The effectiveness ratings for GREEN COFFEE are as follows:

Insufficient evidence to rate effectiveness for…

  • High blood pressure. Early research suggests that taking green coffee extracts containing 50 mg to 140 mg of chlorogenic acids daily for 4 weeks to 12 weeks can reduce blood pressure in Japanese adults with mild and untreated high blood pressure. Systolic blood pressure (the top number) appears to be reduced by 5 mmHg to 10 mmHg. Diastolic blood pressure (the bottom number) appears to be reduced by 3 mmHg to 7 mmHg.
  • Obesity. Early research shows that adults with obesity who take a specific green coffee extract (Svetol, Naturex) five times daily for 8 weeks to 12 weeks, either alone or together with the regular coffee product Coffee Slender (Med-Eq Ltd., Tonsberg, Norway), lose an average of 2.5 to 3.7 kg more weight than people taking a placebo or regular coffee by itself.
  • Alzheimer’s disease.
  • Type 2 diabetes.
  • Other conditions.

More evidence is needed to rate green coffee for these uses.

How does it work?

Green coffee beans are coffee beans that have not yet been roasted. These coffee beans contain a higher amount of the chemical chlorogenic acid. This chemical is thought to have health benefits. For high blood pressure it might affect blood vessels so that blood pressure is reduced.

For weight loss, chlorogenic acid in green coffee is thought to affect how the body handles blood sugar and metabolism.

Are there safety concerns?

Green coffee is POSSIBLY SAFE when taken by mouth appropriately. Green coffee extracts taken in doses up to 480 mg daily have been used safely for up to 12 weeks. Also, a specific green coffee extract (Svetol, Naturex, South Hackensack, NJ) has been used safely in doses up to 200 mg five times daily for up to 12 weeks.

It is important to understand that green coffee contains caffeine, similar to regular coffee. Therefore, green coffee can cause caffeine-related side effects similar to coffee.

Caffeine can cause insomnia, nervousness and restlessness, stomach upset, nausea and vomiting, increased heart and breathing rate, and other side effects. Consuming large amounts of coffee might also cause headache, anxiety, agitation, ringing in the ears, and irregular heartbeats.

Special precautions & warnings:

Pregnancy and breast-feeding: There is not enough reliable information about the safety of taking green coffee if you are pregnant or breast feeding. Stay on the safe side and avoid use..

Abnormally high levels of homocysteine: Consuming a high dose of chlorogenic acid for a short duration has caused increased plasma homocysteine levels, which may be associated with conditions such as heart disease.

Anxiety disorders: The caffeine in green coffee might make anxiety worse.

Bleeding disorders: There is some concern that the caffeine in green coffee might make bleeding disorders worse.

Diabetes: Some research suggests that caffeine contained in green coffee might change the way people with diabetes process sugar. Caffeine has been reported to cause increases as well as decreases in blood sugar. Use caffeine with caution if you have diabetes and monitor your blood sugar carefully.

Diarrhea: Green coffee contains caffeine. The caffeine in coffee, especially when taken in large amounts, can worsen diarrhea.

Glaucoma: Taking caffeine which is contained in green coffee can increases pressure inside the eye. The increase starts within 30 minutes and lasts for at least 90 minutes.

High blood pressure: Taking caffeine found in green coffee might increase blood pressure in people with high blood pressure. However, this effect might be less in people who consume caffeine from coffee or other sources regularly.

High cholesterol: Certain components of unfiltered coffee have been shown to increase cholesterol levels. These components can be found in green coffee as well. However, it is unclear if green coffee can also cause increased cholesterol levels.

Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS): Green coffee contains caffeine. The caffeine in coffee, especially when taken in large amounts, can worsen diarrhea and might worsen symptoms of IBS.

Thinning bones (osteoporosis): Caffeine from green coffee and other sources can increase the amount of calcium that is flushed out in the urine. This might weaken bones. If you have osteoporosis, limit caffeine consumption to less than 300 mg per day (approximately 2-3 cups of regular coffee). Taking calcium supplements may help to make up for calcium that is lost. Postmenopausal women who have an inherited condition that keeps them from processing vitamin D normally, should be especially cautious when using caffeine.

Are there interactions with medications?

Moderate
Be cautious with this combination.
Adenosine (Adenocard)
The caffeine in green coffee might block the effects of adenosine (Adenocard). Adenosine (Adenocard) is often used by doctors to do a test on the heart. This test is called a cardiac stress test. Stop consuming green coffee or other caffeine-containing products at least 24 hours before a cardiac stress test.
Alcohol
The body breaks down the caffeine in green coffee to get rid of it. Alcohol can decrease how quickly the body breaks down caffeine. Taking green coffee along with alcohol might cause too much caffeine in the bloodstream and caffeine side effects including jitteriness, headache, and fast heartbeat.
Alendronate (Fosamax)
Green coffee might decrease how much alendronate (Fosamax) the body absorbs. Taking coffee and alendronate (Fosamax) at the same time can decrease the effectiveness of alendronate (Fosamax). Don’t take green coffee within two hours of taking alendronate (Fosamax).
Antibiotics (Quinolone antibiotics)
The body breaks down caffeine from green coffee and other sources to get rid of it. Some antibiotics might decrease how quickly the body breaks down caffeine. Taking these antibiotics along with green coffee can increase the risk of side effects including jitteriness, headache, increased heart rate, and other side effects.

Some antibiotics that decrease how quickly the body breaks down caffeine include ciprofloxacin (Cipro), enoxacin (Penetrex), norfloxacin (Chibroxin, Noroxin), sparfloxacin (Zagam), trovafloxacin (Trovan), and grepafloxacin (Raxar).

Clozapine (Clozaril)
The body breaks down clozapine (Clozaril) to get rid of it. The caffeine in green coffee might decrease how fast the body breaks down clozapine (Clozaril). Taking green coffee along with clozapine (Clozaril) can increase the effects and side effects of clozapine (Clozaril).
Dipyridamole (Persantine)
The caffeine in green coffee might block the effects of dipyridamole (Persantine). Dipyridamole (Persantine) is often used by doctors to do a test on the heart. This test is called a cardiac stress test. Stop taking green coffee or other caffeine-containing products at least 24 hours before a cardiac stress test.
Disulfiram (Antabuse)
The body breaks down the caffeine in green coffee to get rid of it. Disulfiram (Antabuse) can decrease how quickly the body gets rid of caffeine. Taking green coffee along with disulfiram (Antabuse) might increase the effects and side effects of coffee including jitteriness, hyperactivity, irritability, and others.
Ephedrine
Stimulant drugs speed up the nervous system. The caffeine in green coffee and ephedrine are both stimulant drugs. Taking green coffee and ephedrine might cause too much stimulation and sometimes serious side effects and heart problems. Do not take caffeine-containing products and ephedrine at the same time.
Estrogens
The body breaks down the caffeine in green coffee to get rid of it. Estrogens can decrease how quickly the body breaks down caffeine. Taking estrogen pills and green coffee might cause jitteriness, headache, fast heartbeat, and other side effects. If you take estrogen pills limit your caffeine intake.

Some estrogen pills include conjugated equine estrogens (Premarin), ethinyl estradiol, estradiol, and others.

Fluvoxamine (Luvox)
The body breaks down the caffeine in green coffee to get rid of it. Fluvoxamine (Luvox) can decrease how quickly the body breaks down caffeine. Taking caffeine along with fluvoxamine (Luvox) might cause too much caffeine in the body, and increase the effects and side effects of caffeine.
Lithium
Your body naturally gets rid of lithium. The caffeine in green coffee can increase how quickly your body gets rid of lithium. If you take products that contain caffeine and you take lithium, stop taking caffeine products slowly. Stopping caffeine too quickly can increase the side effects of lithium.
Medications for asthma (Beta-adrenergic agonists)
Green coffee contains caffeine. Caffeine can stimulate the heart. Some medications for asthma can also stimulate the heart. Taking caffeine with some medications for asthma might cause too much stimulation and cause heart problems.

Some medications for asthma include albuterol (Proventil, Ventolin, Volmax), metaproterenol (Alupent), terbutaline (Bricanyl, Brethine), and isoproterenol (Isuprel).

Medications for depression (MAOIs)
The caffeine in green coffee can stimulate the body. Some medications used for depression can also stimulate the body. Taking green coffee and taking some medications for depression might cause too much stimulation and serious side effects including fast heartbeat, high blood pressure, nervousness, and others.

Some of these medications used for depression include phenelzine (Nardil), tranylcypromine (Parnate), and others.

Medications that slow blood clotting (Anticoagulant / Antiplatelet drugs)
Caffeine in green coffee might slow blood clotting. Taking green coffee along with medications that also slow clotting might increase the chances of bruising and bleeding.

Some medications that slow blood clotting include aspirin, clopidogrel (Plavix), diclofenac (Voltaren, Cataflam, others), ibuprofen (Advil, Motrin, others), naproxen (Anaprox, Naprosyn, others), dalteparin (Fragmin), enoxaparin (Lovenox), heparin, warfarin (Coumadin), and others.

Pentobarbital (Nembutal)
The stimulant effects of the caffeine in green coffee can block the sleep-producing effects of pentobarbital.
Phenylpropanolamine
The caffeine in green coffee can stimulate the body. Phenylpropanolamine can also stimulate the body. Taking caffeine and phenylpropanolamine together might cause too much stimulation and increase heartbeat, blood pressure, and cause nervousness.
Riluzole (Rilutek)
The body breaks down riluzole (Rilutek) to get rid of it. Taking green coffee can decrease how fast the body breaks down riluzole (Rilutek). In theory, combined use might increase the effects and side effects of riluzole.
Stimulant drugs
Stimulant drugs speed up the nervous system. By speeding up the nervous system, stimulant medications can make you feel jittery and speed up your heartbeat. The caffeine in green coffee can also speed up the nervous system. Taking green coffee along with stimulant drugs might cause serious problems including increased heart rate and high blood pressure. Avoid taking stimulant drugs along with green coffee.

Some stimulant drugs include diethylpropion (Tenuate), epinephrine, phentermine (Ionamin), pseudoephedrine (Sudafed), and many others.

Theophylline
The caffeine in green coffee works similarly to theophylline. Caffeine can also decrease how quickly the body gets rid of theophylline. Taking green coffee and taking theophylline might increase the effects and side effects of theophylline.
Verapamil (Calan, Covera, Isoptin, Verelan)
The body breaks down the caffeine in green coffee to get rid of it. Verapamil (Calan, Covera, Isoptin, Verelan) can decrease how quickly the body gets rid of caffeine. Drinking coffee and taking verapamil (Calan, Covera, Isoptin, Verelan) can increase the risk of side effects for green coffee including jitteriness, headache, and an increased heartbeat.
Minor
Be watchful with this combination.
Birth control pills (Contraceptive drugs)
The body breaks down the caffeine in green coffee to get rid of it. Birth control pills can decrease how quickly the body breaks down caffeine. Taking green coffee along with birth control pills can cause jitteriness, headache, fast heartbeat, and other side effects.

Some birth control pills include ethinyl estradiol and levonorgestrel (Triphasil), ethinyl estradiol and norethindrone (Ortho-Novum 1/35, Ortho-Novum 7/7/7), and others.

Cimetidine (Tagamet)
The body breaks down the caffeine in green coffee to get rid of it. Cimetidine (Tagamet) can decrease how quickly your body breaks down caffeine. Taking cimetidine (Tagamet) along with green coffee might increase the chance of caffeine side effects including jitteriness, headache, fast heartbeat, and others.
Fluconazole (Diflucan)
The body breaks down the caffeine in green coffee to get rid of it. Fluconazole (Diflucan) might decrease how quickly the body gets rid of caffeine. Taking fluconazole (Diflucan) and green coffee might increase the effects and side effects of coffee including nervousness, anxiety, and insomnia.
Medications for diabetes (Antidiabetes drugs)
Caffeine in green coffee might increase blood sugar. Diabetes medications are used to lower blood sugar. By increasing blood sugar, green coffee might decrease the effectiveness of diabetes medications. Monitor your blood sugar closely. The dose of your diabetes medication might need to be changed.

Some medications used for diabetes include glimepiride (Amaryl), glyburide (DiaBeta, Glynase PresTab, Micronase), insulin, pioglitazone (Actos), rosiglitazone (Avandia), chlorpropamide (Diabinese), glipizide (Glucotrol), tolbutamide (Orinase), and others.

Medications for high blood pressure (Antihypertensive drugs)
Green coffee might decrease blood pressure. Taking green coffee along with medications for high blood pressure might cause your blood pressure to go too low.

Some medications for high blood pressure include captopril (Capoten), enalapril (Vasotec), losartan (Cozaar), valsartan (Diovan), diltiazem (Cardizem), Amlodipine (Norvasc), hydrochlorothiazide (HydroDIURIL), furosemide (Lasix), and many others.

Mexiletine (Mexitil)
Green coffee contains caffeine. The body breaks down caffeine to get rid of it. Mexiletine (Mexitil) can decrease how quickly the body breaks down caffeine. Taking Mexiletine (Mexitil) along with green coffee might increase the caffeine effects and side effects of coffee.
Terbinafine (Lamisil)
The body breaks down the caffeine in green coffee to get rid of it. Terbinafine (Lamisil) can decrease how fast the body gets rid of caffeine and increase the risk of side effects including jitteriness, headache, increased heartbeat, and other effects.

Are there interactions with herbs and supplements?

Bitter orange
Bitter orange in combination with caffeine or caffeine-containing herbs can increase blood pressure and heart rate in otherwise healthy adults with normal blood pressure. This might increase the risk of developing serious heart problems. Avoid this combination.
Caffeine-containing herbs and supplements
Using green coffee along with other caffeine-containing herbs and supplements increases exposure to caffeine and increases the risk of developing caffeine-related side effects. Other natural medicines that contain caffeine include black tea, cocoa, cola nut, green tea, oolong tea, guarana, and mate.
Calcium
High caffeine intake from foods and beverages including green coffee increases the amount of calcium that is flushed out in the urine.
Cyclodextrin
The dietary fiber cyclodextrin has been shown to complex with certain components of green coffee that are responsible for its blood pressure-lowering effects. Theoretically, consuming cyclodextrin and green coffee may reduce the absorption of this component and reduce its beneficial effects on blood pressure.
Ephedra (Ma huang)
Green coffee contains caffeine, which is a stimulant. Using green coffee with ephedra, which is also a stimulant, might increase the risk of experiencing serious or life-threatening side effects such as high blood pressure, heart attack, stroke, seizures, and death. Avoid taking coffee with ephedra and other stimulants.
Herbs and supplements that might lower blood pressure
Green coffee decreases blood pressure. When used with other herbs and supplements that reduce blood pressure, green coffee may have additive blood pressure-lowering effects. Other natural medicines with blood pressure-lowering effects include alpha-linolenic acid, blond psyllium, calcium, cocoa, cod liver oil, coenzyme Q-10, garlic, olives, potassium, pycnogenol, sweet orange, vitamin C, wheat bran, and others.
Herbs and supplements that might lower blood sugar
Green coffee extract can lower blood glucose levels. Using it with other herbs or supplements that have the same effect might cause blood sugar levels to drop too low. Some herbs and supplements that can lower blood sugar include alpha-lipoic acid, chromium, devil’s claw, fenugreek, garlic, guar gum, horse chestnut, Panax ginseng, psyllium, Siberian ginseng, and others.

Herbs and supplements that slow blood clottingThe caffeine in green coffee might slow blood clotting. Taking green coffee and using herbs that might also slow blood clotting could increase the risk of bleeding in some people. Some of these herbs include angelica, clove, danshen, garlic, ginger, ginkgo, Panax ginseng, and others.IronCertain components of green coffee may prevent iron from being absorbed from food. Theoretically, this may result in levels of iron in the body becoming too low.MagnesiumTaking large amounts of green coffee can increase the amount of magnesium that is flushed out in the urine.

 

What dose is used?

The appropriate dose of green coffee depends on several factors such as the user’s age, health, and several other conditions. At this time there is not enough scientific information to determine an appropriate range of doses for green coffee (in children/in adults). Keep in mind that natural products are not always necessarily safe and dosages can be important. Be sure to follow relevant directions on product labels and consult your pharmacist or physician or other healthcare professional before using.

Methodology

To learn more about how this article was written, please see the Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database methodology.

References

  1. Svetol Product Information Pack. Naturex, Avignon, France. March 2013. Available at: http://greencoffee.gr/wp-content/uploads/2013/12/GA501071_PRODUCT-INFO-PACK_04-06-2013.pdf (accessed July 6, 2015).
  2. Federal Trade Commission Press Release. Marketer who promoted a green coffee bean weight-loss supplement agrees to settle FTC charges. Available at: http://www.ftc.gov/news-events/press-releases/2015/01/marketer-who-promoted-green-coffee-bean-weight-loss-supplement (accessed July 5, 2015).
  3. Vinson J, Burnham B. Retraction: Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, linear dose, crossover study to evaluate the efficacy and safety of a green coffee bean extract in overweight subjects. Diabetes Metab Syndr Obes 2014;7:467. Available at: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4206203/.

Chasteberry

Buried Treasure Women's Change - 16 Fl Oz

Background

  • Chasteberry is the fruit of the chaste tree, which is native to Central Asia and the Mediterranean region.
  • The plant was believed to promote chastity (hence its name). Monks in the Middle Ages reportedly used it to decrease sexual desire.
  • Chasteberry was also used for reproductive disorders.
  • Today, chasteberry is used as a dietary supplement for menstrual problems, menopause symptoms, infertility, and other conditions.
  • Chasteberry is available as a liquid extract, capsules, tablets, and an essential oil.

How Much Do We Know?

  • There’s not a lot of strong research on the effectiveness of chasteberry for any condition. We do have some clear safety information on the herb.

What Have We Learned?

  • A few preliminary studies found that chasteberry may improve some symptoms of premenstrual syndrome but the evidence isn’t firm.
  • Researchers have studied chasteberry for breast pain and infertility, but there isn’t enough reliable scientific evidence to know if it helps.
  • There’s no evidence that chasteberry helps with menopausal symptoms.

What Do We Know About Safety?

  • When used in limited amounts, chasteberry appears to be generally well tolerated. Few side effects have been reported.
  • Women on birth control pills or hormone replacement therapy, or who have a hormone-sensitive condition (such as breast cancer) should not use chasteberry.
  • People taking dopamine-related medications, such as certain antipsychotic drugs and Parkinson’s disease medications should avoid using chasteberry.

Keep in Mind

  • Tell all your health care providers about any complementary or integrative health approaches you use. Give them a full picture of what you do to manage your health. This will help ensure coordinated and safe care.

NCCIH Clearinghouse

The NCCIH Clearinghouse provides information on NCCIH and complementary and integrative health approaches, including publications and searches of Federal databases of scientific and medical literature. The Clearinghouse does not provide medical advice, treatment recommendations, or referrals to practitioners.

Toll-free in the U.S.:
1-888-644-6226
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1-866-464-3615

Adora Calcium Supplement Disk - Organic - Dark Chocolate - 30 Ct - 1 Case

 

Calcium is a mineral found in many foods. The body needs calcium to maintain strong bones and to carry out many important functions. Almost all calcium is stored in bones and teeth, where it supports their structure and hardness.

The body also needs calcium for muscles to move and for nerves to carry messages between the brain and every body part. In addition, calcium is used to help blood vessels move blood throughout the body and to help release hormones and enzymes that affect almost every function in the human body.

How much calcium do I need?

The amount of calcium you need each day depends on your age. Average daily recommended amounts are listed below in milligrams (mg):

Life Stage Recommended Amount
Birth to 6 months 200 mg
Infants 7–12 months 260 mg
Children 1–3 years 700 mg
Children 4–8 years 1,000 mg
Children 9–13 years 1,300 mg
Teens 14–18 years 1,300 mg
Adults 19–50 years 1,000 mg
Adult men 51–70 years 1,000 mg
Adult women 51–70 years 1,200 mg
Adults 71 years and older 1,200 mg
Pregnant and breastfeeding teens 1,300 mg
Pregnant and breastfeeding adults 1,000 mg

 

What foods provide calcium?

Calcium is found in many foods. You can get recommended amounts of calcium by eating a variety of foods, including the following:

  • Milk, yogurt, and cheese are the main food sources of calcium for the majority of people in the United States.
  • Kale, broccoli, and Chinese cabbage are fine vegetable sources of calcium.
  • Fish with soft bones that you eat, such as canned sardines and salmon, are fine animal sources of calcium.
  • Most grains (such as breads, pastas, and unfortified cereals), while not rich in calcium, add significant amounts of calcium to the diet because people eat them often or in large amounts.
  • Calcium is added to some breakfast cereals, fruit juices, soy and rice beverages, and tofu. To find out whether these foods have calcium, check the product labels.

What kinds of calcium dietary supplements are available?

Calcium is found in many multivitamin-mineral supplements, though the amount varies by product. Dietary supplements that contain only calcium or calcium with other nutrients such as vitamin D are also available. Check the Supplement Facts label to determine the amount of calcium provided.

The two main forms of calcium dietary supplements are carbonate and citrate. Calcium carbonate is inexpensive, but is absorbed best when taken with food. Some over-the-counter antacid products, such as Tums® and Rolaids®, contain calcium carbonate. Each pill or chew provides 200–400 mg of calcium. Calcium citrate, a more expensive form of the supplement, is absorbed well on an empty or a full stomach. In addition, people with low levels of stomach acid (a condition more common in people older than 50) absorb calcium citrate more easily than calcium carbonate. Other forms of calcium in supplements and fortified foods include gluconate, lactate, and phosphate.

Calcium absorption is best when a person consumes no more than 500 mg at one time. So a person who takes 1,000 mg/day of calcium from supplements, for example, should split the dose rather than take it all at once.

Calcium supplements may cause gas, bloating, and constipation in some people. If any of these symptoms occur, try spreading out the calcium dose throughout the day, taking the supplement with meals, or changing the supplement brand or calcium form you take.

Am I getting enough calcium?

Many people don’t get recommended amounts of calcium from the foods they eat, including:

  • Boys aged 9 to 13 years,
  • Girls aged 9 to 18 years,
  • Women older than 50 years,
  • Men older than 70 years.

When total intakes from both food and supplements are considered, many people—particularly adolescent girls—still fall short of getting enough calcium, while some older women likely get more than the upper limit. See our Health Professional Fact Sheet on Calcium for more details.

Certain groups of people are more likely than others to have trouble getting enough calcium:

  • Postmenopausal women because they experience greater bone loss and do not absorb calcium as well. Sufficient calcium intake from food, and supplements if needed, can slow the rate of bone loss.
  • Women of childbearing age whose menstrual periods stop (amenorrhea) because they exercise heavily, eat too little, or both. They need sufficient calcium to cope with the resulting decreased calcium absorption, increased calcium losses in the urine, and slowdown in the formation of new bone.
  • People with lactose intolerance cannot digest this natural sugar found in milk and experience symptoms like bloating, gas, and diarrhea when they drink more than small amounts at a time. They usually can eat other calcium-rich dairy products that are low in lactose, such as yogurt and many cheeses, and drink lactose-reduced or lactose-free milk.
  • Vegans (vegetarians who eat no animal products) and ovo-vegetarians (vegetarians who eat eggs but no dairy products), because they avoid the dairy products that are a major source of calcium in other people’s diets.

Many factors can affect the amount of calcium absorbed from the digestive tract, including:

  • Age. Efficiency of calcium absorption decreases as people age. Recommended calcium intakes are higher for people over age 70.
  • Vitamin D intake. This vitamin, present in some foods and produced in the body when skin is exposed to sunlight, increases calcium absorption.
  • Other components in food. Both oxalic acid (in some vegetables and beans) and phytic acid (in whole grains) can reduce calcium absorption. People who eat a variety of foods don’t have to consider these factors. They are accounted for in the calcium recommended intakes, which take absorption into account.

Many factors can also affect how much calcium the body eliminates in urine, feces, and sweat. These include consumption of alcohol- and caffeine-containing beverages as well as intake of other nutrients (protein, sodium, potassium, and phosphorus). In most people, these factors have little effect on calcium status.

What happens if I don’t get enough calcium?

Insufficient intakes of calcium do not produce obvious symptoms in the short term because the body maintains calcium levels in the blood by taking it from bone. Over the long term, intakes of calcium below recommended levels have health consequences, such as causing low bone mass (osteopenia) and increasing the risks of osteoporosis and bone fractures.

Symptoms of serious calcium deficiency include numbness and tingling in the fingers, convulsions, and abnormal heart rhythms that can lead to death if not corrected. These symptoms occur almost always in people with serious health problems or who are undergoing certain medical treatments.

What are some effects of calcium on health?

Scientists are studying calcium to understand how it affects health. Here are several examples of what this research has shown:

Bone health and osteoporosis

Bones need plenty of calcium and vitamin D throughout childhood and adolescence to reach their peak strength and calcium content by about age 30. After that, bones slowly lose calcium, but people can help reduce these losses by getting recommended amounts of calcium throughout adulthood and by having a healthy, active lifestyle that includes weight-bearing physical activity (such as walking and running).

Osteoporosis is a disease of the bones in older adults (especially women) in which the bones become porous, fragile, and more prone to fracture. Osteoporosis is a serious public health problem for more than 10 million adults over the age of 50 in the United States. Adequate calcium and vitamin D intakes as well as regular exercise are essential to keep bones healthy throughout life.

Taking calcium and vitamin D supplements reduce the risk of breaking a bone and the risk of falling in frail, elderly adults who live in nursing homes and similar facilities. But it’s not clear if the supplements help prevent bone fractures and falls in older people who live at home.

Cancer

Studies have examined whether calcium supplements or diets high in calcium might lower the risks of developing cancer of the colon or rectum or increase the risk of prostate cancer. The research to date provides no clear answers. Given that cancer develops over many years, longer term studies are needed.

Cardiovascular disease

Some studies show that getting enough calcium might decrease the risk of heart disease and stroke. Other studies find that high amounts of calcium, particularly from supplements, might increase the risk of heart disease. But when all the studies are considered together, scientists have concluded that as long as intakes are not above the upper limit, calcium from food or supplements will not increase or decrease the risk of having a heart attack or stroke.

High blood pressure

Some studies have found that getting recommended intakes of calcium can reduce the risk of developing high blood pressure (hypertension). One large study in particular found that eating a diet high in fat-free and low-fat dairy products, vegetables, and fruits lowered blood pressure.

Preeclampsia

Preeclampsia is a serious medical condition in which a pregnant woman develops high blood pressure and kidney problems that cause protein to spill into the urine. It is a leading cause of sickness and death in pregnant women and their newborn babies. For women who get less than about 900 mg of calcium a day, taking calcium supplements during pregnancy (1,000 mg a day or more) reduces the risk of preeclampsia. But most women in the United States who become pregnant get enough calcium from their diets.

Kidney stones

Most kidney stones are rich in calcium oxalate. Some studies have found that higher intakes of calcium from dietary supplements are linked to a greater risk of kidney stones, especially among older adults. But calcium from foods does not appear to cause kidney stones. For most people, other factors (such as not drinking enough fluids) probably have a larger effect on the risk of kidney stones than calcium intake.

Weight loss

Although several studies have shown that getting more calcium helps lower body weight or reduce weight gain over time, most studies have found that calcium—from foods or dietary supplements—has little if any effect on body weight and amount of body fat.

For more information on calcium and weight loss, see our consumer fact sheet on Weight Loss.

Can calcium be harmful?

Getting too much calcium can cause constipation. It might also interfere with the body’s ability to absorb iron and zinc, but this effect is not well established. In adults, too much calcium (from dietary supplements but not food) might increase the risk of kidney stones. Some studies show that people who consume high amounts of calcium might have increased risks of prostate cancer and heart disease, but more research is needed to understand these possible links.

The upper limits for calcium are listed below. Most people do not get amounts above the upper limits from food alone; excess intakes usually come from the use of calcium supplements. Surveys show that some older women in the United States probably get amounts somewhat above the upper limit since the use of calcium supplements is common among these women.

Life Stage Upper Limit
Birth to 6 months 1,000 mg
Infants 7–12 months 1,500 mg
Children 1–8 years 2,500 mg
Children 9–18 years 3,000 mg
Adults 19–50 years 2,500 mg
Adults 51 years and older 2,000 mg
Pregnant and breastfeeding teens 3,000 mg
Pregnant and breastfeeding adults 2,500 mg

Are there any interactions with calcium that I should know about?

Calcium dietary supplements can interact or interfere with certain medicines that you take, and some medicines can lower or raise calcium levels in the body. Here are some examples:

  • Calcium can reduce the absorption of these drugs when taken together:
    • Bisphosphonates (to treat osteoporosis)
    • Antibiotics of the fluoroquinolone and tetracycline families
    • Levothyroxine (to treat low thyroid activity)
    • Phenytoin (an anticonvulsant)
    • Tiludronate disodium (to treat Paget’s disease).
  • Diuretics differ in their effects. Thiazide-type diuretics (such as Diuril® and Lozol®) reduce calcium excretion by the kidneys which in turn can raise blood calcium levels too high. But loop diuretics (such as Lasix® and Bumex®) increase calcium excretion and thereby lower blood calcium levels.
  • Antacids containing aluminum or magnesium increase calcium loss in the urine.
  • Mineral oil and stimulant laxatives reduce calcium absorption.
  • Glucocorticoids (such as prednisone) can cause calcium depletion and eventually osteoporosis when people use them for months at a time.

Tell your doctor, pharmacist, and other health care providers about any dietary supplements and medicines you take. They can tell you if those dietary supplements might interact or interfere with your prescription or over-the-counter medicines or if the medicines might interfere with how your body absorbs, uses, or breaks down nutrients.

Calcium and healthful eating

People should get most of their nutrients from food, advises the federal government’s Dietary Guidelines for Americans. Foods contain vitamins, minerals, dietary fiber and other substances that benefit health. In some cases, fortified foods and dietary supplements may provide nutrients that otherwise may be consumed in less-than-recommended amounts. For more information about building a healthy diet, refer to the Dietary Guidelines for Americansexternal link disclaimer and the U.S. Department of Agriculture’s MyPlateexternal link disclaimer.

Where can I find out more about calcium?

Disclaimer

This fact sheet by the Office of Dietary Supplements provides information that should not take the place of medical advice. We encourage you to talk to your healthcare providers (doctor, registered dietitian, pharmacist, etc.) about your interest in, questions about, or use of dietary supplements and what may be best for your overall health. Any mention in this publication of a specific brand name is not an endorsement of the product.

Updated: November 17, 2016

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