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Archive for March, 2013

New Report: Antidepres​sant Effects of Testostero​ne

Testosterone, the primary male sex hormone, appears to have antidepressant properties.

Research scientists at Florida State University, discovered that a specific pathway in the hippocampus (a brain region involved in memory formation and regulation of stress responses) plays a significant role in mediating testosterone’s effects, according to a new report in Biological Psychiatry.
Women are twice as likely to suffer from depression compared to men. Men with a condition known as hypogonadism, in which the body produces no or low testosterone, also suffer increased levels of depression and anxiety.
Testosterone replacement therapy has been shown to effectively improve mood. It is important to fully characterize how and where the effects are occurring so that scientists can better target the development of future antidepressant therapies.
To achieve this goal, the scientists performed multiple experiments in neutered adult male laboratory subjects. They developed depressive-like behaviors that were reversed with testosterone replacement.The researchers also identified a critical molecular pathway called MAPK/ERK2 (mitogen activated protein kinase/ extracellular regulated kinase 2) in the hippocampus that plays a major role in mediating the protective effects of testosterone.This suggests that the proper functioning of ERK2 is necessary before the antidepressant effects of testosterone can occur. It also suggests that this pathway may be a promising target for antidepressant therapies.
It’s interesting to note the beneficial effects of testosterone were not associated with changes in neurogenesis (generation of new neurons) in the hippocampus as it does with other antidepressants like imipramine (Tofranil) and fluoxetine (Prozac).”
Journal Reference:
Nicole Carrier, Mohamed Kabbaj. Extracellular Signal-Regulated Kinase 2 Signaling in the Hippocampal Dentate Gyrus Mediates the Antidepressant Effects of Testosterone.
Biological Psychiatry, 2012
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Boosting Immunity with Vitamin D3 and Omega-3 To Fight Alzheimer’​s

Plaques Alzheimers

Nutritional Compounds Including Vitamin D3 and Omega-3 Fish Oils Could Be Highly-Beneficial In Boosting Immunity To Help Fight Alzheimer’s…

Nutritional Approaches Now Being Studied
For Helping Clear Brain Plaques Present in Alzheimer’s Disease

Alzheimer’s brain tissue exhibits many fewer nerve cells and synapses than a healthy brain, due to the presence of plaques (abnormal clusters of protein fragments) build up between nerve cells; tangled- twisted strands of proteins that contain dead and dying nerve cells.

In a study from the University of California Los Angeles (UCLA; California, USA), researchers drew blood samples from both Alzheimer’s patients and healthy patients. They isolated macrophages , which are the blood components that are responsible for disposing of amyloid-beta and other waste products in the brain and body.

The team incubated the immune cells overnight with amyloid-beta. They added either an active form of vitamin D3 (1alpha,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3)  or an active form of the omega-3 fatty acid DHA (resolvin D1) to some of the cells to gauge the effect they had on inflammation and amyloid-beta absorption. 

The team observed that 1alpha, 25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 as well as the resolvin D1 improved the ability of the Alzheimer’s disease patients’ macrophages to devour amyloid-beta, and they also inhibited the cell death that is induced by amyloid-beta.

Researchers observed that each nutrition molecule utilized different receptors and common signaling pathways to accomplish this beneficial task. The researchers are reporting about the positive potential for nutritional approaches to fight  Alzheimer’s, stating “Our new study sheds further light on a possible role for nutritional substances such as vitamin D3 and omega-3 in boosting immunity to help fight Alzheimer’s.”


University of California Los Angeles

(UCLA ; California, USA)

Mizwicki MT, Menegaz D, Zhang J, Barrientos-Durán A, Tse S, Cashman JR,  Griffin PR, Fiala M.  “Genomic and nongenomic signaling induced by  1α,25(OH)2-vitamin D3 promotes the recovery of amyloid-[beta]  phagocytosis by Alzheimer’s disease macrophages.”  J Alzheimers Dis.  2012;29(1):51-62.
This article is for informational and educational purposes only;  It is not intended to provide medical advice, diagnosis or treatment. Consult your doctor or healthcare professional.


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