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Posts tagged ‘Harvard School of Public Health’

Sugar Sweetened Beverages Increase Risk Of Heart Disease

Sugar-Sweetened Beverages Linked to Increased Risk of Heart Disease in Men
Cola Drinks
Men who drank a sugar-sweetened beverage (12-ounces) a day had a 20 percent higher risk of heart disease compared to men who didn’t
drink any sugar-sweetened drinks, according to research published in Circulation, an American Heart Association journal.

“This study adds to the growing evidence that sugary beverages are detrimental to cardiovascular health,” said researchers from the department of nutrition and epidemiology in the Harvard School of Public Health in Boston, Mass. “Certainly, it provides strong justification for reducing sugary beverage consumption among patients, and more importantly, in the general population.”

Heart disease is the leading cause of death in the United States. The most crucial risk factors include obesity, smoking, physical inactivity, diabetes and poor diet.
Researchers, who studied 42,883 men in the Health Professionals Follow-Up Study, found that the increase persisted even after controlling for other risk factors, including smoking, physical inactivity, alcohol use and family history of heart disease. Less frequent consumption of the sweetened beverages such as twice weekly and twice monthly  did not increase risk.
Researchers also measured different lipids and proteins in the blood, which are indicators (biomarkers) for heart disease. These included the inflammation marker C-reactive protein (CRP), harmful lipids called triglycerides and good lipids called high-density lipoproteins (HDL). Compared to non-drinkers, those who consumed sugary beverages daily had higher triglyceride and CRP and lower HDL levels.
Artificially sweetened beverages were not linked to increased risk or biomarkers for heart disease in this particular study.
Beginning in January 1986 and every two years until December 2008, participants responded to questionnaires about diet and other health habits. They also provided a blood sample halfway through the survey. Follow-up was 22 years.
Participants were primarily Caucasian men 40-75 years old. All were employed in a health-related profession.
Health habits of the men in the study may differ from those of the general public, but findings in women from the 2009 Nurses’ Health Study were comparable.
The American Heart Association recommends no more than half of discretionary calories come from added sugars . For most American men, that’s no more than 150 calories per day and 100 for most American women. Discretionary calories are those left in your “energy allowance” after consuming the recommended types and amounts of foods to meet all daily nutrient requirements.
The Canadian Institutes of Health Research funded the analysis and the National Institutes of Health funded the Health Professionals Follow-Up Study.
Story Source:  American Heart Association    Journal Reference: Sweetened Beverage Consumption, Incident Coronary Heart Disease and Biomarkers of Risk in Men. Circulation, March 12 2012
American Heart Association  Sugar-sweetened drinks linked to increased risk of heart disease in men, study suggests.
This article is for informational and educational purposes only;  It is not intended to provide medical advice, diagnosis or treatment.
Consult your doctor or healthcare professional.
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Red Meat Consumptio​n Linked to Increased Risk of Cardio Disease and Cancer

FROM RED MEAT TO ASH-A FOUR WEEK LABORATORY PR...

FROM RED MEAT TO ASH-A FOUR WEEK LABORATORY PROCEDURE FOR MEASURING GAMMA RADIATION AT EPA'S LAS VEGAS NATIONAL... - NARA - 548867 (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

In a new study from Harvard School of Public Health (HSPH) researchers have found that red meat consumption is associated with an increased risk of total, cardiovascular and cancer mortality. 

The results also confirmed that substituting other healthy protein sources, such as fish, poultry, nuts, and legumes was associated with a lower risk of mortality.

The study was published online in the Archives of Internal Medicine.

“Our study adds more evidence to the health risks of eating high amounts of red meat, which has been associated with type 2 diabetes, coronary heart disease, stroke, and certain cancers in other studies,” said researchers from  the Department of Nutrition at HSPH.

The research scientists from the department of nutrition and epidemiology at HSPH, and colleagues, prospectively observed 37,698 men from the “Health Professionals Follow-up Study” for up to 22 years and 83,644 women in the “Nurses’ Health Study” for up to 28 years who were free of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and cancer at base-line. Diets were assessed through questionnaires every four years.

A combined 23,926 deaths were documented in the two studies of which 5,910 were from CVD and 9,464 from cancer. Regular consumption of red meat, (Most especially processed red meat) was associated with increased mortality risk.

One daily serving of unprocessed red meat (about the size of a hamburger or small 8 oz steak) was associated with a 13% increased risk of mortality, and one daily serving of processed red meat (one hot dog or two slices of bacon) was associated with a 20% increased risk.

For cardiovascular mortality, the corresponding increases in risk were 18% and 21% while it was 10% and 16% for cancer mortality. The analytical reports took into account chronic disease risk factors such as age, body mass index, physical activity, family history of heart disease, or major cancers.

Red meat, particularly processed meats, contains ingredients that are linked to increased risk of chronic diseases, such as cardiovascular disease and cancer. These include heme iron, saturated fat, sodium, nitrites, and certain carcinogens that are formed during cooking.

Replacing one serving of total red meat with one serving of a healthy protein source was associated with a lower mortality risk: 7% for fish, 14% for poultry, 19% for nuts, 10% for legumes, 10% for low-fat dairy products, and 14% for whole grains.

The researchers estimated that 9.3% of deaths in men and 7.6% in women could have been prevented at the end of the follow-up if all the participants had consumed less than 0.5 servings per day of red meat.

“This study provides clear evidence that regular consumption of red meat, especially processed meat, contributes substantially to premature death,” said the researchers.

Substituting Other Healthy Protein Sources Including: Fish, Poultry, Nuts and Legumes Was Associated With Lower Risk of Mortality

The researchers confirmed… “On the other hand, choosing more healthful sources of protein in place of red meat can confer significant health benefits by reducing chronic disease morbidity and mortality.”

Support for the study was provided by the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute and the National Cancer Institute.

Source: Harvard School of Public Health

References: “Red Meat Consumption and Mortality,”  Archives of Internal Medicine, online March 12, 2012

This article is for informational and educational purposes only;  It is not intended to provide medical advice, diagnosis or treatment. Consult your doctor or healthcare professional.

Red Meat Linked to Increased Risk of Type 2 Diabetes

A new study by Harvard School of Public Health (HSPH) researchers finds a strong association between the consumption of red meat (especially when the meat is processed) and an increased risk of type 2 diabetes.
The study also shows that replacing red meat with healthier proteins,
such as low-fat dairy, nuts or whole grains, can significantly lower the risk.

The study was published online in the American Journal of Clinical Nutrition on August 10, 2011 and appears in the October print edition.

The team of nutrition and epidemiology researchers at HSPH, and colleagues analyzed questionnaire responses from 37,083 men followed for 20 years in the Health Professionals Follow-Up Study; 79,570 women followed for 28 years in the Nurses’ Health Study I; and 87,504 women followed for 14 years in the Nurses’ Health Study II.

They also conducted an updated meta-analysis, combining data from their new study with data from existing studies that included a total of 442,101 participants, 28,228 of whom developed type 2 diabetes during the study. After adjusting for age, body mass index (BMI), and other lifestyle and dietary risk factors, the researchers found that a daily 100 gram serving of unprocessed red meat was associated with a 19% increased risk of type 2 diabetes. They also found that one daily serving of half that quantity of processed meat 50 grams (equivalent to one hot dog or sausage or two slices of bacon) was associated with a 51% increased risk.

“Clearly, the results from this study have huge public health implications given the rising type 2 diabetes epidemic and increasing consumption of red meats worldwide,” they said. “The good news is that such troubling risk factors can be offset by swapping red meat for a healthier protein.”

The researchers found that, for an individual who eats one daily serving of red meat, substituting one serving of nuts per day was associated with a 21% lower risk of type 2 diabetes; substituting low-fat dairy, a 17% lower risk; and substituting whole grains, a 23% lower risk.

Based on these results, the researchers advise that consumption of processed red meat such as hot dogs, bacon, sausage and deli meats, generally have high levels of sodium and nitrites and should be minimized. Unprocessed red meat such as steak should be also reduced. If possible, red meat should be replaced with healthier choices, such as nuts, whole grains, low-fat dairy products, fish or beans.

Worldwide, diabetes has reached epidemic levels, affecting nearly 350 million adults. In the U.S. alone, more than 11% of adults over age 20 — 25.6 million people — have the disease, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Most have type 2 diabetes, which is primarily linked to obesity, physical inactivity, and an unhealthy diet.

Previous studies have indicated that eating processed red meats increases the risk of developing type 2 diabetes. Risks from unprocessed meats have been less clear. For instance, in 2010, HSPH researchers found no clear evidence of an association between eating unprocessed meats and increased risk for either coronary heart disease or type 2 diabetes, but that study was based on smaller samples than the current study, and the researchers recommended further study of unprocessed meats.

Another HSPH study in 2010 linked eating red meat with an increased risk of heart disease, which is strongly linked to diabetes, but did not distinguish between processed and unprocessed red meats.

This new study, the largest of its kind in terms of sample size and follow-up years finds that both unprocessed and processed meats pose a type 2 diabetes risk. This study is among the first to estimate the risk reduction associated with substituting healthier protein choices for red meat.

“Our study clearly shows that eating both unprocessed and processed red meat, particularly processed, is associated with an increased risk of type 2 diabetes,” said the researchers, noting that the 2010 U.S. dietary guidelines continue to lump red meat together with fish, poultry, eggs, nuts, seeds, beans, and soy products in the “protein foods” group.

But since red meat appears to have the negative health effects of increased risk of diabetes, cardiovascular disease and total mortality, suggested by several recent studies, they suggested the guidelines should distinguish red meat from healthier protein sources and promote the latter instead.

Support for the study was provided by the National Institutes of Health’s National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases and the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute.

Story Source: Harvard School of Public Health.

Journal Reference: Red Meat Consumption and Risk of Type 2 Diabetes:
3 Cohorts of U.S. Adults and an Updated Meta-Analysis. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, August 10, 2011

Harvard School of Public Health (2011, August 11). Red meat linked to increased risk of type 2 diabetes

This article is for informational and educational purposes only, and is not intended to provide medical advice,diagnosis or treatment. Contact your doctor or healthcare professional for medical and nutritional consultation.

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